There are also burger variations in different countries. In Muslim countries, any pork products are eliminated and halal meat is used. The prospect of expanding or modifying the marketing mix for services was a core discussion topic at the inaugural AMA Conference dedicated to Services Marketing in the early s, and built on earlier theoretical works pointing to many important problems and limitations of the 4 Ps model. Inusing the above mentioned information, Bernard H. Marketing Theories — The 7Ps of the Marketing Mix By understanding the impact of the Internet on marketing mix and competitive forces, E-business managers boomd adopt appropriate strategies for meeting the unique challenges of E-business. There is a play area for children, and service is always provided with a smile.
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See also: Environmental psychology A simplified environmental psychology model Environmental psychologists investigate the impact of spatial environments on behaviour. Emotional responses to environmental stimuli fall into three dimensions; pleasure, arousal and dominance. Architects and designers can use insights from environmental psychology to design environments that promote desired emotional or behavioural outcomes. These responses should be understood as a continuum, rather than a discrete emotion, and customers can be visualised as falling anywhere along the continuum as shown in the diagram.
Arousal—non-arousal refers to the emotional state that reflects the degree to which consumers and employees feel excited and stimulated. Dominance—submissiveness refers to the emotional state that reflects the degree to which consumers and employees feel in control and able to act freely within the service environment.
In a service environment, approach behaviours might be characterised by a desire to explore an unfamiliar environment, remain in the service environment, interact with the environment and with other persons in the environment and a willingness to perform tasks within that environment. Avoid behaviours are characterised by a desire to leave the establishment, ignore the service environment, and feelings disappointment with the service experience. Environments in which people feel they lack control are unattractive.
Customers often understand the concept of approach intuitively when they comment that a particular place "looks inviting" or "gives off good vibes". The desired level of emotional arousal depends on the situation. For example, at a gym arousal might be more important than pleasure No Pain; No gain. In a leisure setting, pleasure might be more important. If the environment pleases, then the customer will be induced to stay longer and explore all that the service has to offer.
Too much arousal, however, can be counter-productive. For instance, a romantic couple might feel out of place in a busy, noisy and cluttered restaurant. Obviously, some level of arousal is necessary as a motivation to buy. The longer a customer stays in an environment, the greater the opportunities to cross-sell a range of service offerings.
Mehrabian and Russell identified two types of environment based on the degree of information processing and stimulation:  High load: Environments that are unfamiliar, novel, complex, unpredictable or crowded are high load. Such environments tend to make people feel alert and stimulated. Low load: Environments that are familiar, simple, unsurprising and well organised are low load.
Such environments tend to make people feel relaxed, calm and even sleepy. Activities or tasks that are low load require a more stimulating environment for optimum performance. If the task to be performed is relatively simple, routine or boring then users benefit from a slightly more stimulating environment.
On the other hand, tasks that are complex or difficult may benefit from a low load environment. The servicescapes model[ edit ] See also: Services marketing and Service design Simplified servicescapes model The servicescapes model is an applied stimulus-organism-response model SOR model , which treats the physical environment as the stimulus and the response is the behavior of employees and customers within the physical environment.
Environmental inputs are sensory, spatial and symbolic. Each element in the physical environment serves multiple purposes. For instance, furnishings may serve a functional role in that they provide seating where patrons can wait for friends or simply enjoy a quiet rest, but the construction materials may also serve a symbolic role in which they communicate meaning through shared understandings.
Plush fabrics and generous drapery may signify an elegant, up-market venue, while plastic chairs may signify an inexpensive, family-friendly venue. Signage may provide information, but may also serve to assist customers navigate their way through a complex service environment.
When evaluating the servicescape, the combined effect of all the elements must also be taken into consideration. The functional seating, ceiling mounted projectors, whiteboard, fluorescent lighting and schoolroom layout clearly signal that this space is part of an educational environment. Ambient Conditions[ edit ] Ambient conditions refer to the controllable, observable stimuli such as air temperature, lighting and noise. Ambient factors, such as music used in servicescapes, have been found to influence consumer behaviors.
One study found that "positively valenced music [joyful] will stimulate more thoughts and feeling than negatively valenced [mournful] music ",  hence, positively valenced music will make the waiting time feel longer to the customer than negatively valenced music. In a retail store, for example, changing the background music to a quicker tempo may influence the consumer to move through the space at a quicker pace, thereby improving traffic flow.
Two important aspects of layout are functionality and spatial layout. Some research suggests that customers associate more spacious surroundings with higher quality services. Souvenirs, or artefacts, are part of the servicescape Signs, symbols and artefacts[ edit ] Signs, symbols and artefacts refer to a broader category of objects that serve multiple purposes.
Signs and symbol refer to physical signals that provide cues for directional purposes, provide information about appropriate behaviour within a store or servicescape and may also serve a symbolic role. Some signs perform rudimentary roles such as providing directions for navigation through a space while other more complex signs that communicate through shared meaning systems.
Physical environment elements not only serve a functional or utilitarian role, but they communicate meaning in very subtle ways through symbolism. They are the tangible reminders of the service experienced by consumers. Artefacts may be purpose-designed objects that serve as souvenirs or mementoes of a pleasant experience. Many services, such as museums, galleries, theatres and tourist attractions, manufacture artefacts that form the basis of a merchandise collection, available for sale to visitors and guests.
These artefacts, more commonly known as souvenirs, can often be retailed at prices well above market value because of the memory consumers attach to the experiential encounter. When consumers enter a servicescape, they process multiple stimuli almost simultaneously. Consumers scan the ambient conditions, layout, furnishings and artefacts and aggregate them to derive an overall impression of the environment.
In other words, the holistic environment is the cumulative effect of multiple stimuli, most of which are processed within a split second. These types of global judgments represent the summation of processing multiple stimuli to form a single impression. In the servicescapes model, this type of impression is known as the holistic environment. Ideally, the physical environment will be designed to achieve desired behavioural outcomes. Clever use of space can be used to encourage patrons to stay longer since longer stays result in more opportunities to sell services.
At other times, the ambient conditions can be manipulated to encourage avoidance behaviour. For example, at the end of a busy night of trading, a bar manager might turn the air conditioning up, turn up the lights, turn off the background music and start stacking chairs on top of tables.
These actions send a signal to patrons that it is closing time. Customers and employees[ edit ] The organism dimension refers to the two groups of people that make up the service encounter — customers and employees. Both groups inhabit the same physical environment, yet their perceptions of it may vary because each comes to the space for different reasons. For example, a waiter in a restaurant is likely to be pleased to see a crowded dining room because more customers means more tips.
Customers, on the other hand, might be less pleased with a crowded space because the noise and queues have the potential to diminish the service experience. Internal response moderators and mediators[ edit ] A moderator is any variable with the potential to change the relationship between a dependent and independent variable.
Moderating variables describe what effects will hold in certain conditions. A mediator is an intervening variable that helps to explain the relationship between two variables. Faced with such a situation, the consumer may respond in various ways — some consumers will choose to add another layer of clothing, others will leave the environment as soon as practical, while yet others may simply endure the minor discomfort.
If the consumer has a strong motivation for being in the environment, he or she is more likely to suffer the minor inconvenience of an uncomfortable ambient temperature. Behavioural responses[ edit ] Navigational floor signs are commonly used in elaborate servicescapes such as shopping malls, hospitals and institutions.
The model shows that there are different types of response - individual response approach and avoid and interaction responses e. In the context of servicescapes, approach has a special meaning.
It refers to how customers use the space, during and after the service encounter. Some studies have shown a correlation between length of stay and the size of average patron expenditure Carry out plan — exhibiting a willingness to act on information provided, fully immerse themselves in the experience and a determination to achieve personal goals Approach behaviours demonstrated at the conclusion of the encounter or after the encounter include: Affiliation — A willingness to become a regular user, form intention to revisit Commitment — The formation of intention to become brand advocate, to provide positive recommendations, write favourable reviews or give positive word-of-mouth referrals Avoid behaviours are characterised by a desire to leave the establishment, ignore the service environment, and feelings disappointment with the service experience.
Social interactions refer to customer-employee interactions as well as customer-customer interactions. In some services, such as clubs, bars and tours, the act of meeting other people and interacting with other customers forms an integral part of the service experience. Managers need to think about design features that can be used to facilitate interactions between patrons. For instance, some cafeterias and casual dining establishments install communal dining tables for the express purpose of encouraging customers to mix and socialise.
Designing lean environments is relatively straight-forward Elaborate servicescapes- environments that comprise multiple spaces, are rich in physical elements and symbolism, involve high contact services with many interactions between customers and employees.
Examples include international hotels and ocean liners with guest accommodation, concierge, bars, restaurants, swimming pools, gymnasiums and other supplementary services where guests interact with multiple personnel during their stay which might extend over multiple days. Designing elaborate environments requires skilled design teams who are fully apprised of the desired behavioural outcomes and the corporate vision.
BOOMS AND BITNER 1981 PDF
Some aspects of physical evidence provide lasting proof that the service has ibtner, such as souvenirs, mementos, invoices and other livery of artifacts. Very well executed article and nicely elaborated with simply words so the wider viewers can refer and understand. Here are some indications of adapt the product element on the Internet. Marketing Theories — The 7Ps of the Marketing Mix The price of a product or service is determined by all factors that an organization invests during the preparation of the product.