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In the course of advocating for the freedom of African slaves, men like Prichard and Combe allowed scientific racism to flourish. James Poskett A mummified corpse. An embalmed head. A neat bullet hole in the side of a skull.

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I had applied to several artists to furnish these drawings, and the camera lucida and graphic mirror were both tried in vain. On being furnished with the annexed drawing apparatus, which might be called a Craniograph, I was soon able by practice to make my own drawings with great celerity and correctness. Some of my earlier essays, however, are among the last in this work, and will be recognised by their want of finish. The cranium was adjusted on the board G, with its centre six inches from the surface of A; a piece of glass was then laid over the opening between the cross pieces at C, where it was held down by a screw.

By looking down at the cranium F, through the eye-piece E, its outline and markings were seen on the glass at C diminished to one quarter, and were traced out on the glass with a pen and India ink, with great rapidity and accuracy. The drawings thus obtained on the glass, were then traced with a pencil on paper pressed against the glass while held up to the light, after which the drawing was finished with a pen. In the above cut the eye-piece is too high. The Facial Goniometer "The following diagram represents the instrument, which may be called the Facial Goniometer, as applied to a cranium for the purpose of measurement.

The letters A, A, A represent the rectangular basal limbs of the instrument. In order to fix the goniometer to a skull, there is attached to each of the lateral limbs a slide with a conical pivot attached, C, which enters the meatus of the car. The limb D, D, is attached by a hinge to the base, and can be brought to form any angle with it. G is a scale of one hundred degrees, attached by a hinge at I, and let through the limb D, D, at H.

E is a horizontal limb, at right angles with D, D, on which it slides at F. The thin piece of wood, K, K, has an opening at L, to admit the nasal bones to pass through it. Now this piece of wood necessarily touches the most prominent parts of the forehead and upper maxillary bone, and therefore represents the facial line. To measure the facial angle, bring the upper surface of the anterior basal limb of the instrument on a horizontal plane with the nasal spine; then let the limb D, D, fall back until the lateral limb E, touches the facial line K, K, when the facial angle will be at once designated on the scale.

For the purpose of greater accuracy the lateral basal limbs of the instrument are graduated in inches and parts of inches, not represented in the diagram, and the sliding parts of the anterior limb are fixed by screws as seen on each side of A whenever the instrument is properly adjusted.

With this apparatus the facial angle of any skull may be ascertained with exactness in the brief space of two or three minutes.

Internal capacity. Phillips, viz: a tin cylinder was provided about two inches and three-fourths in diameter, and two feet two inches high, standing on a foot, and banded with swelled hoops about two inches apart, and firmly soldered, to prevent accidental flattening.

A float of light wood, well varnished, two and a quarter inches in diameter, with a slender rod of the same material fixed in its centre, was dropped into the tin cylinder; then five cubic inches of water, measured in the glass tube, were poured into the cylinder, and the point at which the rod on the float stood above the top of the cylinder, was marked with the edge of a file laid across its top; and the successive graduations on the float-rod, indicating five cubic inches each, were obtained by pouring five cubic inches from the glass tube gradatim, and marking each rise on the float-rod.

The graduations thus ascertained, were transferred to a mahogany rod fitted with a flat foot, and these subdivided, with compasses for the cubic inches and parts. The contents were then transferred to the tin cylinder, which was well shaken in order to pack the seed. The mahogany rod being then dropped down with its foot resting on the seed, the capacity of the cranium in cubic inches is at once read off on it.

It was also sifted to render the equality still greater.

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Biodiversity Heritage Library

He was one of the founders of the Pennsylvania Medical College in Philadelphia [4] and served as its professor of anatomy from until his resignation in Morton claimed the Bible supported polygenism, and within working in a biblical framework his theory held that each race had been created separately and each was given specific, irrevocable characteristics. A large volume meant a large brain and high intellectual capacity, and a small skull indicated a small brain and decreased intellectual capacity. He was reputed to hold the largest collection of skulls, on which he based his research. He claimed that each race had a separate origin, and that a descending order of intelligence could be discerned that placed Caucasians at the pinnacle and Negroes at the lowest point, with various other race groups in between. His skull measurements by volume then came to serve as "evidence" for racial stereotypes.

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Samuel George Morton

I had applied to several artists to furnish these drawings, and the camera lucida and graphic mirror were both tried in vain. On being furnished with the annexed drawing apparatus, which might be called a Craniograph, I was soon able by practice to make my own drawings with great celerity and correctness. Some of my earlier essays, however, are among the last in this work, and will be recognised by their want of finish. The cranium was adjusted on the board G, with its centre six inches from the surface of A; a piece of glass was then laid over the opening between the cross pieces at C, where it was held down by a screw.

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