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It is usually found in moss, primarily in the cold conifer bogs of northern and montane North America--and it is not uncommon to find it fruiting from very well decayed, moss-covered logs. As the species is currently defined, it is apparently circumboreal and montane, so that collections from northern North America represent, theoretically, the same species as those from northern and montane Europe.

This may, or may not, actually be the case; see the discussion below if you care. On the West Coast of North America a very similar, unnamed species, Craterellus species 02 , can be found from northern California to Alaska. In eastern North America several putative species have been separated on the basis of minor morphological differences, including: Cantharellus sphaerosporus , which has nearly round spores but is otherwise nearly identical; Craterellus pallidipes, with a long, pale stem; and Craterellus flavobrunneus, with a cap that begins as yellow but matures to dark brown.

Description: Ecology: Mycorrhizal with conifers; growing alone, gregariously, or in loose clusters in moss or on well-decayed, moss-covered logs in conifer bogs; northern and montane North America also northern and montane Europe ; fall. Cap: cm wide; more or less convex at first; soon becoming vase-shaped and eventually becoming perforated in the center; with a wavy and irregular margin when mature; bald; sticky or waxy when fresh; dark yellowish brown to blackish brown, fading to grayish brown or grayish with age; colors sometimes faintly streaked in radial patterns.

Undersurface: Running down the stem; when young with ridges and folds; with age developing well developed false gills that fork frequently and have cross-veins; yellowish to grayish or brownish--or occasionally faintly lilac. Stem: cm long; mm thick; more or less equal; becoming hollow; bald, with a waxy feel; usually orange to orangish yellow when young, becoming dull yellow, brownish, or orangish; basal mycelium whitish to pale yellow.

Flesh: Insubstantial; brownish to yellowish. Odor and Taste : Taste not distinctive; odor not distinctive or slightly fragrant. Spore Print : White. Elements of upper surface cylindric; 2.

Kuo , , Cantharellus tubaeformis is a synonym. In the years since the Dahlman study it has become clear to practitioners of mycological molecular systematics that LSU is often useful for determining large taxonomic units and groupings families, genera, species groups --but is not generally reliable for the determination of individual species. But some of the proposed changes that involve determination of species may need to be and have been, in part revisited by studies that use species-informative gene sequences.

Dahlman and collaborators put to rest the idea that Craterellus tubaeformis belongs in the genus Cantharellus; LSU results were quite clear about this, showing a clear and well-supported division between Cantharellus and Craterellus, with tubaeformis positioned smack-dab in the thick of the Craterellus species.

Other taxa confirmed by LSU sequences as belonging in Craterellus included Craterellus cornucopioides , Craterellus fallax , Craterellus odoratus, Craterellus sinuosus, Craterellus lutescens, Craterellus ignicolor , and Craterellus infundibuliformis. However, Dahlman and collaborators also proposed several taxonomic changes for species based on the fact that they grouped together in the LSU phylogeny. The Matheny paper did not address the question of the yellow Craterellus konradii.

Another potentially faulty conclusion from the Dahlman paper is the proposal that Craterellus infundibuliformis and Craterellus tubaeformis represent the same species; further study with a species-informative gene should be done in order to re-evaluate this idea. The centuries-old debate about how these taxa should be separated spore print color? In other words, if LSU shows entities as clearly separated, then they are likely to be clearly separated with species-informative genes, too, since LSU demonstrates larger-scale separations.

Who knew?! The authors rightly conclude that "[t]o resolve these issues, further systematic taxonomic studies on C.


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