But then, rather surprisingly, as Kissinger himself becomes an actor the book becomes less interesting; his fascination with the characters of Nixon and Reagan robs him of any ability to judge their efforts objectively, and even his account of ending the Vietnam War is repetitious and oddly unenlightening. The book fails to establish its main intellectual theses which are that a America is unique in bringing its own moral values to international diplomacy and b that this is only successful when these are consciously married to a realist perception of what is possible. The first proposition is easily falsified by the large number of other countries which have attempted to export their own ideologies to the rest of the world. The second proposition is trickier. But if you think Reagan was in any way successful, that in itself is a serious strike against the idea that studying IR is any use at all other than for potentially generating literature to be read by other IR scholars, rather than practitioners. Kissinger damns Carter by barely mentioning him.

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Nixon and Gerald R. He became a naturalized citizen in He served in the U. After leaving the service, he entered Harvard University , where he received a B. In he joined the faculty as an instructor, becoming professor of government in and director of the Defense Studies Program from to He also served as a consultant on security matters to various U.

Eisenhower , John F. Kennedy , and Lyndon B. In December Kissinger was appointed by President Nixon as assistant for national security affairs. He eventually came to serve as head of the National Security Council —75 and as secretary of state September —January 20, Henry A. KissingerHenry A. Kissinger, Department of State Kissinger soon emerged as an influential figure in the Nixon administration.

He developed a policy of warmer U. White House Photo Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today Although he originally advocated a hard-line policy in Vietnam and helped engineer the U. In mid-December Nixon authorized saturation bombing of North Vietnam, but by the end of the month he had halted it, and, with progress being made in the talks with North Vietnam in Paris , on January 15, , Nixon ceased all military action against North Vietnam.

Just over a week later, on January 23 in Paris , Kissinger initialed a cease-fire agreement that provided for the withdrawal of U. In a news conference on January 24, which clarified the main points of the agreement, Kissinger said: Henry A. Kissinger, Richard M. Nixon, and Alexander Haig From left U. National Security Adviser Henry A. Kissinger, Pres. Richard M. Oliver F. We have had many armistices in Indochina.

We want a peace that will last And we believe that under conditions of peace we can contribute throughout Indochina to a realization of the humane aspirations of all the people of Indochina. And we will, in that spirit, perform our traditional role of helping people realize these aspirations in peace. After the Arab-Israeli War of see Yom Kippur War , Kissinger used what came to be called shuttle diplomacy in disengaging the opposing armies and promoting a truce between the belligerents.

He was responsible for the resumption of diplomatic relations between Egypt and the United States, severed since After leaving office in , Kissinger became an international consultant, writer, and lecturer. In President Ronald W. Reagan appointed him to head a national commission on Central America. Kissinger and Gerald FordHenry A.

Kissinger left with U. Library of Congress, Washington, D. This article was most recently revised and updated by Jeff Wallenfeldt , Manager, Geography and History. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:.





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