As a young man, he was interested in the Basque language , which he could speak, and competed for a teaching position in the Instituto de Bilbao against Sabino Arana. Unamuno worked in all major genres: the essay, the novel, poetry, and theater, and, as a modernist , contributed greatly to dissolving the boundaries between genres. Unamuno would have preferred to be a philosophy professor, but was unable to get an academic appointment; philosophy was in Spain somewhat politicized. Instead he became a Greek professor.
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As a young man, he was interested in the Basque language , which he could speak, and competed for a teaching position in the Instituto de Bilbao against Sabino Arana. Unamuno worked in all major genres: the essay, the novel, poetry, and theater, and, as a modernist , contributed greatly to dissolving the boundaries between genres. Unamuno would have preferred to be a philosophy professor, but was unable to get an academic appointment; philosophy was in Spain somewhat politicized.
Instead he became a Greek professor. In Unamuno gave his well-known conference on the scientific and literary inviability of the Basque. According to Azurmendi , Unamuno went against the Basque language once his political views changed along his reflection on Spain.
He served as rector of the University of Salamanca for two periods: from to and to , during a time of great social and political upheaval. During the s and s, he became one of the most passionate advocates of Spanish liberalism. Unamuno linked his liberalism with his hometown of Bilbao, which, through its commerce and connection with the civilized world, Unamuno believed had developed an individualism and independent outlook in stark contrast to the narrow-mindedness of Carlist traditionalism.
After a year in Paris, Unamuno established himself in Hendaye, a border town in the French Basque Country, as close to Spain as he could get while remaining in France.
It is said in Salamanca that the day he returned to the University, Unamuno began his lecture by saying "As we were saying yesterday It was as though he had not been absent at all. Unamuno said of the military revolt that it would be the victory of "a brand of Catholicism that is not Christian and of a paranoid militarism bred in the colonial campaigns," referring in the latter case to the war with Abd el-Krim in what was then Spanish Morocco.
A few days later he confided to Nikos Kazantzakis : No, I have not become a right-winger. Pay no mind to what people say. No, I have not betrayed the cause of liberty. But one day I will rise up -- soon -- and throw myself into the fight for liberty, by myself. No, I am neither fascist nor Bolshevik. I am alone! Like Croce in Italy, I am alone! It is a regime of terror on both sides. Unamuno was probably the best Spanish connoisseur of Portuguese culture, literature, and history of his time.
He believed it was as important for a Spaniard to become familiar with the great names of Portuguese literature as with those of Catalan literature. He was also a supporter of Iberian Federalism. It is based on his experiences as a child during the Carlist siege of Bilbao in the Third Carlist War. Unamuno felt that Cervantes had not told the story of Don Quijote very well, cluttering it with unrelated tales.
This work was Don Quixote the way Unamuno thought it should have been written. He felt that as a quijotista a fan or student of Don Quixote he was superior to Cervantes. The work is primarily of interest to those studying Unamuno, not Cervantes.
The title deliberately recalls the famous Novelas ejemplares of Miguel de Cervantes. The novella centres on a heroic priest who has lost his faith in immortality, yet says nothing of his doubts to his parishioners, not wanting to disturb their faith, which he recognizes is a necessary support for their lives. An important concept for Unamuno was intrahistoria. He thought that history could best be understood by looking at the small histories of anonymous people, rather than by focusing on major events such as wars and political pacts.
Some authors relativize the importance of intrahistoria in his thinking. Those authors say that more than a clear concept is an ambiguous metaphor. The term first appears in the essay En torno al casticismo , but Unamuno leaves it soon. Then, in the early twentieth century, he developed his own thinking influenced by existentialism. He explains much of human activity as an attempt to survive, in some form, after our death. Unamuno summarized his personal creed thus: "My religion is to seek for truth in life and for life in truth, even knowing that I shall not find them while I live.
I recall now Marcus Aurelius , St. A historically influential paperfolder from childhood to his last, difficult days, in several works Unamuno ironically expressed philosophical views of Platonism , scholasticism , positivism , and the " science vs religion " issue in terms of " origami " figures, notably the traditional Spanish pajarita. His themes were the same in his poetry as in his other fiction: spiritual anguish, the pain provoked by the silence of God, time and death.
Unamuno was always attracted to traditional meters and, though his early poems did not rhyme, he subsequently turned to rhyme in his later works. Questions such as individual spirituality, faith as a "vital lie", and the problem of a double personality were at the center of La esfinge The Sphinx , and La verdad Truth , This austerity was influenced by classical Greek theatre.
What mattered to him was the presentation of the drama going on inside of the characters, because he understood the novel as a way of gaining knowledge about life. By then the Republican Government had removed Unamuno from his perpetual rectory at the Salamanca University and the rebel government had restored him. After this, Professor Francisco Maldonado decried Catalonia and the Basque Country as "cancers on the body of the nation," adding that " Fascism , the healer of Spain, will know how to exterminate them, cutting into the live flesh, like a determined surgeon free from false sentimentalism.
Later, a group of uniformed Falangists entered, saluting the portrait of Franco that hung on the wall. Unamuno, who was presiding over the meeting, rose up slowly and addressed the crowd: You are waiting for my words. You know me well, and know I cannot remain silent for long.
Sometimes, to remain silent is to lie, since silence can be interpreted as assent. I want to comment on the so-called speech of Professor Maldonado, who is with us here. I will ignore the personal offence to the Basques and Catalans. I myself, as you know, was born in Bilbao. The Bishop, Unamuno gestured to the Archbishop of Salamanca, whether you like it or not, is Catalan, born in Barcelona.
There is no need for us to say this with whispered tones. He is a war cripple. So was Cervantes. But unfortunately, Spain today has too many cripples. And, if God does not help us, soon it will have very many more. A cripple, who lacks the spiritual greatness of Cervantes, hopes to find relief by adding to the number of cripples around him.
Long live death! Long live intelligence! Death to the bad intellectuals! You are profaning its sacred domain. In order to convince it is necessary to persuade, and to persuade you will need something that you lack: reason and right in the struggle. I see it is useless to ask you to think of Spain. I have spoken. Portillo had not witnessed the event. Portillo had no intention of misleading anyone; it was simply a literary evocation.
The photo was discovered in in the National Library and was part of the chronicle of the act that the newspaper "The Advancement of Salamanca" published the following day, October 13,
Miguel de Unamuno
Unamuno domina el ensayo como pocos escritores. En torno al casticismo. En torno al casticismo Miguel de Unamuno Autor: Philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist, Unamuno was a central figure of the Generation of Todd rated it liked it Casticism 22, Juan Ignacio rated it liked it Feb 01, Matthew rated it it was amazing Apr 17, Extent of creativeness, function and length of the text can be relevant. He lived in exile untilfirst banned to Fuerteventura Canary Islandsfrom where he escaped to France.
Visor de obras.
Es anarquismo moral bajo el peso del absolutismo social. Nuestros caballeros metieron las manos hasta los codos en aquello que llamaban aventuras. Los franceses nos dieron Rolando, como nosotros a ellos Gil Blas. Este pueblo de las asociaciones y los contrastes se acomodaba bien a afirmar dos mundos, un Dios y un Diablo sobre ellos, un infierno que temer y un cielo que conquistar con la libertad y la gracia, ganando al Dios misericordioso y justo. Esta era el lazo social, y la unidad religiosa forma suprema de la social.
En Torno Al Casticismo