HANDBOOK OF WORKABILITY AND PROCESS DESIGN PDF

Page: View: Wire drawing is a metalworking process used to reduce the diameter of a wire by pulling the wire through a single, or series of, drawing die s. The engineering applications of wire drawing are broad and far-reaching, including electrical wiring, cables, tension-loaded structural components, springs, paper clips and spokes for wheels. This all-new, classical text is the first to explain the complex theory and sophisticated engineering concepts with relation to wire drawing in an accessible and universal way for practicing engineers. Ideal for use as a complete insight into the process from start to finish or a dip-in resource for practical problem-solving, this versatile work-a-day guide, training tool and desk reference will help readers train their staff and adapt and improve processes at minimal cost for maximum performance.

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All Rights Reserved. Handbook of Workability and Process Design G www. Although this information is believed to be accurate by ASM, ASM cannot guarantee that favorable results will be obtained from the use of this publication alone.

This publication is intended for use by persons having technical skill, at their sole discretion and risk. Since the conditions of product or material use are outside of ASMs control, ASM assumes no liability or obligation in connection with any use of this information. No claim of any kind, whether as to products or information in this publication, and whether or not based on negligence, shall be greater in amount than the purchase price of this product or publication in respect of which damages are claimed.

As with any material, evaluation of the material under end-use conditions prior to specification is essential. Therefore, specific testing under actual conditions is recommended. Nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a grant of any right of manufacture, sale, use, or reproduction, in connection with any method, process, apparatus, product, composition, or system, whether or not covered by letters patent, copyright, or trademark, and nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a defense against any alleged infringement of letters patent, copyright, or trademark, or as a defense against liability for such infringement.

Comments, criticisms, and suggestions are invited, and should be forwarded to ASM International. Dieter, Howard A. Kuhn, Lee Semiatin. Updated and expanded ed.

ISBN 1. Dieter, George Ellwood. Kuhn, Howard A. Semiatin, S. Workability testing techniques. H Kuhn, George E. Dieter, and S. Semiatin Workability Problems. Semiatin Mechanisms of Microstructure Evolution. Dieter Primary Tests. Kuhn Upset Test Technique. Dieter Cylindrical Compression Test. Nicolaou, R. Bailey, and S. Semiatin Equipment and Testing Procedures. Semiatin and J. Jonas Material Considerations. Kuhn Stress and Strain States.

Altan and M. Shirgaokar Forging Process Variables. Wu, J. Jinn, and C. Fischer Modeling Techniques. Lenard The Rolling Process. Gegel, R. Grandhi, J. Malas, W. Frazier, H.

Gegel, and V. Srivatsa Turbine Disk Design and Manufacturing. Whether a part can be produced by plastic deformation without cracking or the generation of other defects is of important economic consequence.

Because of the complex nature of the workability of metals, there is no single test that can be used to evaluate it. Several laboratory tests have been developed that are useful in screening materials for workability, but in other instances, very specialized tests that are specific to the process are commonly used. This original work was developed by the Metal Working Group of ASM to provide a readily available description and interpretation of the most common workability tests in the deformation processing of metals.

Prior to its introduction, this information was widely scattered in the literature. The nearly 20 year life of this book bears witness to the value and acceptance of the concept behind this project. At the time of the formulation of Workability Testing Techniques, the use of finite element methods FEMs for the modeling and simulation of metal deformation processes was in its infancy. In the ensuing 20 years, the use of FEM analysis for process design has become rather commonplace.

Therefore, in contemplating this revision and update, the editors decided to expand the scope to incorporate process design, especially as influenced by FEM analysis. By doing this, the Handbook of Workability and Process Design takes on a more mathematical flavor than its predecessor while still retaining a balance with its original intent.

Thus, the chapters that describe the various workability tests continue true to the original intent of providing practical workability testing techniques that can be used by the inexperienced practitioner. We appreciate the contributions from the many experts who have contributed to this Handbook. Also, special thanks go to Steve Lampman, of the ASM staff, who not only provided editorial guidance throughout this project but also expertly provided the chapters that describe the basics of forging, rolling, extrusion, and wiredrawing.

George E. Lee Semiatin Dayton, OH May 1, vi ASM International is the society for materials engineers and scientists, a worldwide network dedicated to advancing industry, technology, and applications of metals and materials.

All rights reserved. In Japan Takahashi Bldg. You may download and print a copy of this publication for your personal use only. Other use and distribution is prohibited without the express written permission of ASM International. No warranties, express or implied, including, without limitation, warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose, are given in connection with this publication. Nothing contained in this publication shall be construed as a grant of any right of manufacture, sale, use, or reproduction, in connection with any method, process, apparatus, product, composition, or system, whether or not covered by letters patent, copyright, or trademark, and nothing contained in this publication shall be construed as a defense against any alleged infringement of letters patent, copyright, or trademark, or as a defense against liability for such infringement.

Handbook of Workability and Process Design G. Dieter, H. Kuhn, and S. Semiatin, editors, p DOI Bulk working operations Fig. From a geometric viewpoint, bulk forming operations are distinguished by large changes in cross-sectional area e.

In contrast, sheet forming operations Fig. Sheet forming has several characteristics that distinguish it from bulk working; for example, sheet formability includes different criteria such as springback and the resistance of a sheet material to thinning.

Sheet formability and process design are not addressed in this Handbook and are left as topics for another publication. Nevertheless, many of the same concepts and methods described in the present Handbook can be applied to sheet forming processes. While the major role of bulk forming operations is to produce the desired shape, in doing so they also modify the material structure and surface. Generally, the effects of bulk working processes are beneficial, leading to improved internal quality closure of casting porosity, refinement of grain structure, and grain alignment as well as improved surface quality burnished surfaces and worked surface material.

However, the large amount of metal movement during bulk forming operations also can introduce material discontinuities that are potential defects i.

Some general types of surface and internal discontinuities of wrought products are illustrated in Fig. Imperfections such as segregation, porosity, or seams can influence the potential or likelihood of a defective part, and their prevention is one basic objective of process design and control. Material control is also important, because many problems can be traced back to the process of melting and solidification. For example, porosity and shrinkage cavities pipe in an ingot can be passed on to the wrought form Fig.

The demands of high-performance products and rapid product development also can be major concerns in the manufacturing of new products. For example, metallurgical features such as dispersoids and reinforcing particles that lead to desirable properties in modern highperformance materials may also render them hard-to-work.

At the same time, rapid product and process development have achieved a high level of sophistication through the use of modern design methods and tools, enhanced by computerization. These innovations can be classified as materials testing and data acquisition, process and product modeling and simulation, and sensors and model based process control. Effective application of such methods and tools leads to process design and controls that prevent defects and reach the full advantages offered by bulkforming operations in the production of highperformance components.

This Handbook focuses on bulk-forming processes, the defects that frequently occur in such processes, and the roles of materials testing, process design, and process control in avoiding defects.

The types of workability problems that may occur are introduced first, and the general concepts of process modeling for designing and controlling bulk working processes are described. This introductory chapter also includes a brief overview on modeling of bulk forming processes by numerical techniques such as finite element analysis FEA. Finite element Fig. Source: Ref 1 Longitudinal sections of two types of ingots showing typical pipe and porosity. Pipe is a condition that develops in the nominal top centerline of the ingot because of metal shrinkage during solidification.

When the ingots are rolled into bars, pipe and porosity become elongated throughout the center of the bars. Workability Problems Workability refers to the relative ease with which a material can be shaped through plastic deformation. Workability is usually thought of as being limited by the onset of fracture. In general, however, a workability problem occurs when the part produced by the bulk working process is unacceptable and must be scrapped or reworked.

From this practical point of view, workability also may be defined by other factors such as the generation of a rough surface finish or the inability to achieve a required tolerance on a critical dimension. Workability also is a complex technological concept that is related to both material and process characteristics.

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HANDBOOK OF WORKABILITY AND PROCESS DESIGN PDF

All Rights Reserved. Handbook of Workability and Process Design G www. Although this information is believed to be accurate by ASM, ASM cannot guarantee that favorable results will be obtained from the use of this publication alone. This publication is intended for use by persons having technical skill, at their sole discretion and risk. Since the conditions of product or material use are outside of ASMs control, ASM assumes no liability or obligation in connection with any use of this information. No claim of any kind, whether as to products or information in this publication, and whether or not based on negligence, shall be greater in amount than the purchase price of this product or publication in respect of which damages are claimed.

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Handbook of Workability and Process Design

Faujar Thanks for telling us about the problem. Introduction Workability Testing Techniques Process Design and Workability Multidisciplinary Process Design and Optimization The volume also includes a Reference Information section featuring tables summarizing typical flow stress data for steels and nonferrous alloys. Asma marked it as to-read Aug 01, It provides practical workability testing techniques that can be used by Modeling Techniques in Forming Processes. Lists with This Book. Become a member Log In Cart. The present book reflects the use of FEM analysis for process design.

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See Table 3. Further investigation showed that the new equipment did not reduce the impact on the muscle load levels or the load on their hearts. The researchers recommended taking a more comprehensive strategy to work redesign [39]. Table 3: Factors to include in a holistic approach 1. Goals: Job design models need to take greater account of goals that motivate and direct job incumbents, and how they alter according to life circumstance. This could benefit from a self-regulatory frame that would enable the prediction of the different adaptive strategies shift goals, alter perceptions, change behaviours, self-appraisal that individuals may deploy when taking on a role, or over the duration of extended incumbency. Sex: Various predictions could be tested around the preferences and choices men and women characteristically make around some of the main parameters of work roles, including modes of enactment, responses to incentives, pursuit of status, and other outcomes.

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