J Virol Methods. Epub Aug 1. Detection of major capsid protein of infectious myonecrosis virus in shrimps using monoclonal antibodies. Infectious myonecrosis virus IMNV has been causing a progressive disease in farm-reared shrimps in Brazil and Indonesia. Immunodiagnostic methods for IMNV detection, although reliable, are not employed currently because monoclonal antibodies MAbs against this virus are not available. Ten MAbs were generated against the expressed fragment, and eight of these, mostly IgG 2a or IgG 2b , were able to bind to IMNV in tissue extracts from shrimps infected naturally in immunodot-blot assays.
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Infectious Myonecrosis What is it? The principal host species in which IMNV is known to cause significant disease outbreaks and mortalities is Penaeus vannamei. Where and When Might it Occur? Outbreaks of IMN with sudden high mortalities may follow stressful events such as capture by cast-net, feeding, sudden changes in salinity or temperature, etc.
This usually appears in early juvenile, juvenile, or adult P. So far, the disease has been reported in north-eastern Brazil where the expected carriers are and South-East Asia, including the island of Java. Due to a non-enveloped dsRNA virus structure, it is likely that IMNV will remain infectious in the gut and faeces of seabirds that have fed on dead or moribund shrimp at farms with ongoing IMN epizootics, and therefore the disease may be spread within and among farms by faeces or regurgitated shrimp carcasses.
IMNV has also been demonstrated to be transmitted from shrimp to shrimp by cannibalism. Transmission via water and vertical transmission from broodstock to progeny probably occurs.
With vertical transmission, it is not known if the mode is transovarium or by contamination of the spawn eggs. Diagnosis Shrimp in the acute phase of IMN disease will present focal to extensive white necrotic areas in striated skeletal muscles, especially in the distal abdominal segments and tail fan, which can become necrotic and reddened in some individual shrimp.
Severely affected shrimp become moribund and mortalities can be instantaneously high and continue for several days. Mortalities from IMN range from 40 to 70 per cent. Disinfection of eggs and larvae is a good management practice recommended to reduce the potential of IMNV contamination of spawned eggs and larvae produced from them.