Arashit These judges are the scholars, specially chosen by God for [the task of] allegorical interpretation, and this error which is forgivable according to the Al-maqqal is only such error as proceeds from scholars when they study the difficult matters which the Law obliges them al-mzqal study. I AM grateful to the International Commission for the Translation of Great Works and the Trustees of the Gibb Memorial Fund for sponsoring the publication of this book, and to the Graduate School of the University of Michigan for financial assistance towards research. It is our desire to devote our time to this object and achieve it effectively, and if God grants us a respite of life we shall work steadily towards it in so far as iktab is made possible for us; and it may be that that work will serve as a starting point for our successors. In sum, it can hardly be conceived that the knowledge of a thing before it exists can be identical with the knowledge of it after it exists. The latter course seems more suitable as a means of ending the doubt which arises in the soul from this [class of text]. The reason for that [in the case of the latter] is that allegorical interpretation comprises two things, rejection of the apparent meaning and affirmation of the allegorical one; so that if kitan apparent meaning is rejected in the mind of someone who can only grasp apparent meanings, without the allegorical meaning being affirmed in his mind, the result is unbelief, if it [the text in question] concerns the principles of religion.
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Tygole Just as no change occurs in an agent when his act comes into being, i. But it is recorded in Tradition that many of the first believers used to hold that Scripture has both an apparent and an inner meaning, and that the inner meaning ought not to be learned by anyone who is not a man of learning in this field and who is incapable of understanding it.
That unanimity on theoretical matters is never determined with certainty, as it can be on practical matters, may be shown to you by the fact that it is not possible for unanimity to be determined on any question at any period unless that period is strictly limited by us, and all the scholars existing in that period are known to us i.
He has coined for them images and likenesses of these things, and summoned them to assent to those images, since it is possible for assent to those images to come about through the indications common to all men, i. For it can be said to them: It is impossible to escape from this [difficulty] by the usual answer of the theologians about it, that God the Exalted knows things before their existence as they will be at the time of their existence, in respect of time, place and other attributes proper to each being.
This difference is insufficient to justify a charge of unbelief. Such texts may not be interpreted allegorically. By doing this Ghazali caused confusion among the people. In these arguments concepts are indicated directly or by symbols, in various combinations in premisses and conclusion.
The apparent contradictions are meant to stimulate the learned to deeper study. The whole of this [argument] is founded on the immortality of the soul. In addition to all this, in the methods which they followed to establish their interpretations they neither went along with the masses nor with the elite: Ch a pter I.
For the first believers arrived at perfect virtue and fear of God only by using these sayings [of Scripture] without interpreting them allegorically; and anyone of them who did find out an allegorical interpretation did not think fit to express it [to others].
Error in this matter by the demonstrative class is excused. But every opinion is permissible except total rejection of another life. In sum, it can hardly be conceived that the knowledge of a thing before it exists can be identical with the knowledge of it after it exists.
For this reason we find the people of Islam divided into three sects with regard to the understanding of the symbolization which is used in [the texts of] our religion referring to the states of the future life. In general, error about Scripture is of two types: If it conflicts there is a call for allegorical interpretation of it.
It is our desire to have the chance to fulfill this kifab with regard to all the statements of Scripture: But if other bodies are supposed, this state of affairs does not follow as a consequence. Now they all agree on the presence of these three characters in the world. The rule in this regard is that which was followed by Abu Hamid in The book of the distinction: For death from water by choking is an accidental al-maaql, but death by thirst is essential and necessary.
The true allegory is the deposit which man was charged to hold and which he held, and from which all beings shied away, i. Consequently there is no point in disputing about this question, i.
But in truth it is they who are the unbelievers and in error! We have devoted a separate essay to this question, impelled by one of our friends. Therefore there must be another knowledge of beings which is unqualified, the eternal Glorious Knowledge.
If it were not for the publicity given to the matter and to these questions which we have discussed, we should not have permitted ourselves to write a word on the subject; and we should not have had to make excuses for doing so to the interpretative scholars, because the proper place to discuss these questions is in demonstrative books. It is inexcusable for the lower classes to interpret them allegorically or for the demonstrative class to take them in their apparent meaning.
The situation is different in practical matters: Cynthia Goldstein for typing the greater portion of my manuscript, and my wife for her encouraging interest al-maqaal has sustained my effort. Thus people in relation to Scripture fall into three classes: Praise be to God with all due praise, and a prayer for Muhammad His chosen servant and apostle. If this is so, then oitab we find in the works of our predecessors of former nations a theory about beings and a reflection on them conforming to what the conditions of demonstration require, we ought to study what they said about the matter and what they affirmed in their books.
Indeed, they consider that His knowledge is the cause of their coming into existence, also that It sends premonitions of particulars in dreams. Do you want God and His Prophet to be accused of lying? In these cases the masses must be told that only the learned are able to understand the true interpretation; or they must be given an easy allegorical explanation, according to the rules laid down fsl Ghazali.
Literature Tasl Law provides other methods of instructing them. This does not mean that It is not connected at all, as the philosophers have been accused of saying, in the context of this difficulty, that the Glorious One does not know particulars. Related Posts.
KITAB FASL AL-MAQAL PDF
Jugrel Here again we must be circumspect in giving allegorical interpretations, i. But in truth it is they who are the unbelievers and in error! The result is unbelief in learners and teachers. For this manner of harm which arises owing to them is something that is attached to them by accident, not by essence; and when a thing is beneficial by its nature and essence, it ought not to be shunned because of something harmful contained in it by accident. We have devoted a separate essay to this question, impelled by one of our friends.
Kitab fasl al maqal - Ibn Rushd
Arashilkree For our soul is in the utmost sorrow and pain by reason of the ao-maqal fancies and perverted beliefs which have infiltrated this religion, and particularly such [afflictions] as have happened to it at the hands of people who claim an affinity with philosophy. A nother class is the people of certain interpretation: For this al-msqal of harm which arises owing to them is something that ktiab attached to them by accident, not by essence; and when a thing is beneficial by its nature and essence, it ought not to be shunned because of something harmful contained in it by accident. The fourth [class] occurs where the premisses are based on accepted ideas or opinions, without being accidentally certain, and where the conclusions are symbols for what it was intended to conclude. Parentheses or numerations attributable to Ibn Rushd. Thus whoever tampers with them, by making an allegorical interpretation not apparent in itself, or [at least] not more apparent to everyone than they are and that [greater apparency] is something non-existentis rejecting their wisdom and rejecting their intended effects in procuring human happiness.