Although obviously a central concern of linguistics, the semantic behaviour of words has been unduly neglected in the current literature, which has tended to emphasize sentential semantics and its relation to formal systems of logic. In this textbook D. Cruse establishes in a principled and disciplined way the descriptive and generalizable facts about lexical relations that any formal theory of semantics will have to encompass. Among the topics covered in depth are idiomaticity, lexical ambiguity, synonymy, hierarchical relations such as hyponymy and meronymy, and various types of oppositeness. Syntagmatic relations are also treated in some detail.
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Maladal Jeff added it Feb 29, There is one more possible diagnostic criterion: In all these cases one can say that one term the more general one designates a more extensive area of quality space than the other. Types and dimensions of meaning 63 5. Acts of reading, teaching, and selling and sneezing take place at particular times and particular places.
There is no way that the meanings of an infinite number of sentences can be stored in a kind of sentence dictionary— there is not enough room in a finite brain for that. Lexical Semantics The essence of zeugma is the attempt to make a single expression do two semantic jobs at the same time.
Since this book is not intended to propound a body of theory, but to acquaint non-specialists with the range of semantic phenomena in language, there is a bias towards descriptive coverage at the expense of theoretical rigour. We shall not spend too much time on discussing what distinguishes a sentence from other grammatical units, such as a phrase, or a word, except to say that a sentence must contain at least one independent clause i. At first sight this seems to be essentially the same as entailment.
The History of Languages Tore Janson. On the other hand, the relation arises from a legal definition in one society. Mode refers to the difference between language characteristic of different channels, such as spoken, written, in the old days, telegraphic, and perhaps nowadays, e-mail. But this is not entailment, because it is not a consequence of the meaning relations between the two propositions, but of the fact that the second proposition cannot under any circumstances except bt altering the meanings of the components be false.
Lexical Semantics — D. Cruse, David Alan Cruse — Google Books The simple view of this parameter is to make a sharp dichotomy between necessary and contingent logical relationships, and use entailment to determine whether or not a feature is necessary.
To qualify as part of sentence meaning, a semantic property simply has to be a stable crusf property of some linguistic expression. Love is a many-splendoured thing. The first type is self-explanatory; dialects of the second type vary according to the age of the speaker who now speaks of the wireless, even though modern radios have far fewer wires than their forebears?
Meaning in Language : An Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics I would hope it would be found useful, not only by students of linguistics, but also students of ancient and modern languages, translation, psychology, perhaps even literature.
Ahmed Mohamed marked it as to-read May 01, Mention may involve any stretch of language: With these provisos, let us proceed to an examination of a number of dimensions along which descriptive meaning may vary. It derives mainly from two deeper presuppositions. Three main types of dialect can be distinguished: Similarly, slap is more specific than hit, scarlet is more specific than red, woman is more specific than person.
The whole utterance attributes a particular state to the cat in question. No trivia or quizzes yet. The existential quantifier says something like this: But if someone points to a creature and says Is that a dog? Differences of relative prominence can also be observed within a simple sentence. Most Related.
Other titles published so far by Edinburgh University Press focus on morphology, phonology, English grammar, historical linguistics, cognitive linguistics, corpus linguistics, applied linguistics, language and mind. This volume is concerned with two disciplines: semantics and pragmatics. The introduction also explains which fields of language study are covered in the book, what their mutual relation is, and what their respective areas of research consist of. In this part, Cruse provides background information on the notions of semiotics, semantics and pragmatics though without referring to the seminal work of Charles Morris. Interestingly, in the main body of the Glossary, pragmatics receives a separate entry pp. The introduction also explains the typographic conventions used throughout the Glossary and gives advice on using the book. A considerable number of entries almost !
LEXICAL SEMANTICS BY ALAN CRUSE PDF
A third type of specificity is intensity-specificity, where one range of degrees of some property is included in another range. From 14 and 15 we can conclude that huge is more intense than large, and terrified than scared. Meaning in Language : An Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics Since this book is not intended to propound a body of theory, but to acquaint non-specialists with the range of semantic phenomena in language, there is a bias towards descriptive coverage at the expense of theoretical rigour. But what does it mean to say that teach is a three-place predicate? They are also likely to give emphasis to marginal smantics of linguistic signification. As far as point iii is concerned, the descriptive meaning of the sentence can be displaced in the sense that it can be used to refer to events distant in time and space from the speech event: However, some words seem to be potentially, but not necessarily 60 Meaning in language expressive.