ANDROGENESIS IN PLANT TISSUE CULTURE PDF

Pathway II: The uninucleate microspores divide unequally forming vegetative and generative cell. The sporophyte arises through divisions of vegetative cell, the generative cell gets degenerated e. The vegetative cell does not divide, e. Pathway IV: The division of microspore is asymmetrical as in pathway II, but both the cells take part in embryo formation and sporophyte development e. As soon as the starch deposition starts within the microspore there is no further development towards sporophyte.

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Pathway II: The uninucleate microspores divide unequally forming vegetative and generative cell. The sporophyte arises through divisions of vegetative cell, the generative cell gets degenerated e. The vegetative cell does not divide, e.

Pathway IV: The division of microspore is asymmetrical as in pathway II, but both the cells take part in embryo formation and sporophyte development e.

As soon as the starch deposition starts within the microspore there is no further development towards sporophyte. The variation in response of anthers from plants grown under different environmental conditions may be due to the differences in endogenous level of growth regulators.

Flowers from relatively younger plants, flowering at the beginning of flower-season are more responsive. It has been observed that various species and cultivars exhibit different growth responses in culture.

The temperature shock helps in dissolution of microtubules and causes abnormal division of microspores. It helps to develop the multinucleate condition with fewer starch grains. Minerals and growth regulators play important roles on embryogenesis but it totally depends on the endogenous level of hormones. After formation of macroscopic structures, these can be transferred to a regeneration medium and kept at 14 hr. This variation may be due to endomitosis or fusion of various nuclei during the developmental stages of anthers at the time of excision and culture.

For obtaining homozygous diploid lines, the plants derived through anther culture must be analysed for their ploidy level and then the following methods can be applied: Colchicine Treatment: As colchicine is a spindle inhibitor it is used to induce chromosome duplication in various ways: a The regenerated plantlets can be treated with 0. Endomitosis: Haploids are in general unstable in culture and have a tendency to undergo endomitosis to form diploid cells.

This property can be exploited in some cases to obtain the homozygous plant. Related Articles:.

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At present the most successful and commonly used method is enhanced shoot multiplication from axillary bud. Axillary buds are present in the axis of leaves. In tissue culture, by using optimum concentration of cytokinin or combination of cytokinin and Auxin the dormancy of the axillary buds can be broken. Once the dormancy is broken, they develop into shoots.

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